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LEARN CHINESE: CHINESE GRAMMAR

Chinese Grammar on Verb

The same as in English, verbs show actions, mental activities or show something exists, changes or disappears etc.

Examples:

actions: 走 批评 学习 研究 开始 禁止 进行

mental activities: 喜欢 想念 希望 担心 讨厌

existence, change or disappearance: 存在 发生 发展 生长 死亡 消失

possibility, wish or necessity: 能 能够 可以 愿意 应当 应该

judgement: 是

direction: 上起来 回去

Verbs usually use as predicates in sentences, which generally have the following grammatical characteristics:

1. Verbs can be modified by adverbs, such as : '果然来了', ' 写一个字'; but most verbs can not be modified by adverbs which show levels except for auxiliaries (助动词) and verbs which show mental activites.

correct examples: 很生气 非常喜欢 不太愿意
wrong examples: 很打电话 非常写作业 不太来

2. Verbs are always used as predicates and most of them can be followed by objects, which work like transitive verbs in English.

爸爸在看电视。 --- > verb 看 -- object 电视
工人们在盖大楼。 --- > verb 盖 -- object 大楼
谁擦窗户? --- > verb 擦 -- object 窗户

Objects of certain verbs can only be verbs, adjectival or verbid words, such as:

开始 进行 希望 打算 感到 觉得 认为

examples:
开始学习 进行工作 打算出门 感到高兴

Some verbs can not have objects, which is like intransitive verbs do, such as:

示威 成功 失败 出发 劳动 毕业

3. Verbs can often be followed by '着' '了' '过' to show the statue of an action. How to use these words to specific the time of an action will be given later.

他正在写信。(动作正在进行 -- the action 'write' is being done)
他写一封信。(动作已经完成 -- the action 'write' was done)
他给我写过一封信。(动作发生过 -- the action 'write' has been done)

4. Verbs can be used in both positive and negative ways to propose questions.

去不去超市?
听不听我说?

disyllabic verbs can work in the form of 'A不AB' or 'A没AB' to propose questions:

回没回来
喜不喜欢我送的礼物?
习不习惯在中国的生活?

The word '吗' is not necesary at the end of sentences above. It is not correct to say '他回没回来? '

 

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